Topic: The Treaty of Waitangi in Tauranga: Te Tiriti o Waitangi ki Tauranga Moana by Debbie McCauley

Topic type:

The Treaty of Waitangi was first signed in the Bay of Islands on 6 February 1840. Over the following months a further eight Treaty sheets were also signed in a number of other locations around the country. One of those locations was Tauranga. 'The Treaty of Waitangi in Tauranga: Te Tiriti o Waitangi ki Tauranga Moana' is a children's non-fiction narrative picture book by Debbie McCauley and due for release on Waitangi Day 2018. ISBN: 9780473412142.

Looking strange? see an archived version here

Please Note: Page under construction (research has been underway since early 2014 and is continuing, if you have anything to add or correct please contact Debbie McCauley at Tauranga City Library). Please acknowledge this source if reproducing elsewhere.

Mauao Publishing, in conjunction with Tauranga City Libraries and Mana Taiao Events, produced a brochure called 'Te Tiriti Ki Tauranga: The Treaty of Waitangi in Tauranga' using this research for the 175th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi on 6 February 2015. Copies are available from Tauranga City Libraries.

The Treaty of Waitangi, Aotearoa New Zealand's founding document, was first signed in the Bay of Islands on 6 February 1840. Over the following months a further eight Treaty sheets were also signed in a number of other locations around the country. One of those locations was Tauranga.

The copies, written in Māori (except for the Waikato-Manukau Sheet), were distributed around the country to officials and missionaries. Two sheets of the Treaty were sent to missionary Alfred Nesbit Brown (1803-1884) at the Te Papa Mission Station in Tauranga. The day before the Treaty sheet arrived in Tauranga a local chief was murdered:

Pōnui (?-1840)

Iwi: Ngāi Te Rangi

Hapū: Ngāti Hē (Maungatapu Pā)

Pōnui signed the second Deed of Sale for the Te Papa Block of land to Alfred Brown and CMS on 30 March 1839. In February 1840 Te Arawa sent a war party of 600 warriors to attack Ōtūmoeta Pā in Tauranga. Afterwards Rotorua chiefs invited  Ngāi Te Rangi to make peace. Chief Hori Tupaea refused, but chief Pōnui agreed to enter into talks. On 9 April 1840 Pōnui arrived in Maketū for the peace talks. He was welcomed before being attacked and killed by Rotorua chiefs Paora Te Amohau (c1809-1889), Henare Te Pukuatua (?-c1890) and Tohi Te Ururangi (?-1864). Pōnui's body was dragged into the pā where it was cooked and eaten. John Alexander Wilson (1829-1909), son of missionary John Alexander Wilson (1809-1887), wrote: "The other matter was the murder by Tohi of an old Tauranga chief, who had been induced to go to Maketu in the hope of making peace. A neutral woman had gone over to Maunga-tapu and persuaded him (as he was partly connected with Nga-ti-whakaue) to accompany her back for that purpose. As they approached they were met by Tohi and another man on the sands in front of Maketu. “There,” she said, “I have brought you So-and-so.” She stepped aside, and Tohi and his companion completed the iniquity."  

  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (9 April 1840). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850).
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (20 April 1840). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850).
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (23 April 1840). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850).
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (24 April 1840). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850).
  • Curnow, Jenifer (1990). Tohi Te Ururangi (Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand).
  • O'Malley, Vincent (1996). Supporting documents to the report of Vincent O'Malley "The Te Papa Block: A history of Church Missionary Society and Crown dealings, 1838-1867".
  • Westgate, Errol (May 1991). The Treaty of Waitangi in the Bay of Plenty. Historical Review, 39 (1), (p. 45).
  • Wilson, John Alexander (1888). Pa at Maketu Taken. In 'The Ancient History of the Maorihis Mythology and Traditions' by John White (Vol V, p. 240). 

One Treaty sheet bears the three wax seals of the Colonial Secretary of New Zealand (Willoughby Shortland 1804-1869). This beautifully made copy was pre-signed by Lieutenant Governor Hobson, but was never used and never returned. Currently this unsigned copy is held by the Catholic Diocese in St. Mary’s Bay, Auckland.

Brown recorded on 1 April 1840 that he had received information "wishing me to procure the signatures of any leading chiefs in the neighbourhood". This would prove more difficult than anticipated. Factors that may have influenced signature gathering were:

  • Inter-tribal fighting: Months of inter-tribal fighting had taken place in Tauranga around the time of the Treaty signing. 
  • Roman Catholic opposition: Bunbury indicated that opposition from the Roman Catholics at Ōtūmoetai influenced the gathering of signatures. Influencing those at Ōtūmoetai were Bishop Pompallier, Father Viard and trader James Farrow
  • Eye Disease: In December 1839 Brown had suffered from an eye disease which left him unable to read or write for several weeks and which would recur for many years. He did not witness the Treaty.

On 10 April Brown mentions that a day was given up to trying to get signatures, but without success. There are no dates on the sheet to indicate when or where the signings took place but it is assumed that it was in two lots in April and May 1840. Witnesses to the first 17 signatures were Hoani Aneta (also a signatory), Henry Taylor and James Stack. Witness to the last four signatures was James Stack. Next to each signatory are the words 'tana tohu' (his mark or sign).

Ngāi Te Rangi chief Hori Tupaea and some other Ōtūmoetai Pā leaders refused to sign the Treaty when it was presented to them in April and again in May 1840. They could see no clear purpose for signing.

Hori Tupaea (c1800-1881)

Iwi: Ngāi Te Rangi

Hapu Te Whānau ā Tauwhao 

Hori Tupaea lived at Ōtūmoeta Pā, but built another one at Te Tumu which was attacked by Te Arawa in 1836 during which Tupaea was wounded. He refused to sign the Treaty of Waitangi in April of 1840 and again in May 1840. In c1857 Tupaea declined an offer to become the first Māori king. He took a neutral position during the New Zealand Wars, living instead at Patetere and returning to Tauranga after the Battle of Gate Pā. He joined the Pai Marire movement and in 1865 was captured by Te Arawa and kept in prison in Auckland before being pardoned in March 1865 by Governor Grey. Tupaea signed the sale of the Katikati and Te Puna blocks. He was made an assessor of the Native Land Court and later a guest of Sir George Grey. He moved to Rangiwaea Island and died on 26 January 1881.

On 11 May 1840 Hobson’s second in command, Major Thomas Bunbury (1791-1861), arrived in Tauranga aboard the schooner Trent to check on the progress of signature gathering. With him was Edward Marsh Williams (1818-1909) who had earlier helped his father, Henry Williams, translate the Treaty into Māori. Claudia Orange writes, 'The Ōtūmoetai chiefs were not easily convinced. They were suspicious of Crown intentions and sceptical about the advantages to be gained from British government. By Edward William's account, it was not that they did not favour a British administration; rather, they could see no clear purpose in the treaty itself' (p. 75). 'Neither Bunbury nor Edward Williams was able to secure further signatures at Tauranga. Bunbury blamed Pakeha influence... and hinted at opposition from Roman Catholics at Ōtūmoetai (Pompallier had stayed there in February-March)' (p. 75).

James Stack returned the signed Tauranga Treaty to Hobson on 23 May 1840.

Just two years later three signatories were killed in what was the last authentic account of cannibalism in the Tauranga area. 

 

Tauranga Treaty Signatories & Witnesses

 

1. Te Whanake (?-1842)

Iwi: Ngāi Te Rangi

Hapū: Ngāi Tūkairangi (Matakana Island / Ōngare Pā, Katikati)

Son of Huitao and brother of Tari, Whanake means cabbage tree [cordyline australis]. Te Whanake converted to Christianity and was part of Alfred Brown's congregation at Tauranga. On 22 May 1842 Tāraia Ngākuti Te Tumuhuia (?-1872) from Thames led a taua (war party) that attacked Ōngare Pā in Katikati. Te Whanake is said to have built a pā which desecrated urupa (burial grounds) where some of Tāraia’s relatives were buried. Te Whanake was one of those killed and eaten. Later his head, along with Reko's, was rolled into the middle of a Māori church service at Te Puru (about 10 miles from present day Thames)

Note: Te Whanake was not the father of Enoka Te Whanake - Enoka Te Whanake (?-1884) fought at Gate Pā in 1864 and later became a Native Land Court assessor. Enoka was married to a sister of Taiaho Hōri Ngātai (c1832-1912). Enoka had no birth children, but adopted a child (Tameko Palmer). His sisters had children (Pua Taikato, personal communication, 27 May 2016). 

 

2. Huitao (?->1849)

Iwi: Ngāi Te Rangi

Hapū: Ngāi Tūkairangi (Ōtūmoetai)

Huitao was the father of signatories Whanake and Tari. In November 1842 he had a conversation with Edward Shortland (1812-1893) about the Treaty of Waitangi, the Governor as Protector, and disillusionment amongst Māori as to the protections given in the Treaty. They disagreed as to whether the signing of the Treaty was an act of consent to British laws. Shortland recorded in his diary; "Huitao told me that he had signed the Treaty of Waitangi, but he did not seem aware of the full import of what he had signed - I told him it was an act of consent to our laws - he did not seem prepared [to] agree to this". On 25 August 1849 Huitao refused to join Nuka in making peace with Tāraia Ngākuti Te Tumuhuia (?-1872).

  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (25 August 1849). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850) (spelling Huitau).
  • Shortland, Edward (1842-1843). Maketu and notes MS-0020 (via Debbie Gale, Hocken Library, 26 May 2016).
  • Stokes, Evelyn (1997). The allocation of Reserves for Maori in the Tauranga Confiscated Lands (Vol 2, p. 246).
  • Stokes, Evelyn (2002). Wiremu Tamihana Rangatira (pp. 105 & 107).
  • University of Auckland. Inventory of the papers of Edward Shortland 1890-1995. Matauranga Maori MSS MP 95/1 (pp. 34, 42, 43 & 55).
  • Waitangi Tribunal (2004). Te Raupatu o Tauranga Moana: Report on the Tauranga Confiscation Claims (p. 53). 

 

3. Tamaiwhahia [Tama-i-wāhia] (?->1840)

Iwi: Ngāi Te Rangi

Hapū: ? (Ōtūmoetai Pā - Brown)

In 1832 Tama-i-wāhia held Ōtamarākau Pā, south of Maketū and north of Matata. Te Arawa attacked and forced Ngāi Te Rangi to flee to Tauranga. Tama-i-wāhia sought utu and as he was a tohunga (priest) pretended he’d had a vision. Ngāi Te Rangi sailed from Ōtūmoetai to attack but were defeated. Tama-i-wāhia almost lost his life due to Ngāi Te Rangi anger about his false vision. In May 1839 Alfred Brown described him as ‘an old chief’.

 

4. Te Hui [Tipene / 'Stephen Hui'] (?-1842)

Iwi; Ngāi Te Rangi

Hapū: Te Whānau ā Tauwhao

Stephen Te Hui was the son of Koraki and the father of Reneti Te Whauwhau, a leading chief of his hapu who made a number of petitions to the land court in the 1880s & 1890s. Te Hui signed the Deed of Sale for the Te Papa Block of land to Alfred Brown and the Church Missionary Society (CMS) on 30 September 1838. He was wounded in the abdomen during the attack on Ōngare Pā in Katikati on 22 May 1842. Te Hui was baptised by Alfred Brown on 1 June 1842, but died on 7 June after suffering much pain from his wounds. Brown buried him in Mission Cemetery (Otamataha Pā) on 9 June with the head of fellow signatory Paetui which had been retrieved from Katikati.

  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (7 June 1842). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850).
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (8 June 1842). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850).
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (9 June 1842). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850).
  • O'Malley, Vincent (1996). Supporting documents to the report of Vincent O'Malley "The Te Papa Block: A history of Church Missionary Society and Crown dealings, 1838-1867".
  • Stokes, Evelyn (1990). Te Raupatu o Tauranga Moana. Vol. 2: Documents relating to tribal history, confiscation and reallocation oTauranga lands (p. 370).
  • Stokes, Evelyn (2002). Wiremu Tamihana Rangatira (pp. 96-97).

 

5. Te Paetui (?-1842)

Iwi: Ngāi Te Rangi

Hapū: Ngāi Tūkairangi (Matapihi)?

Te Paetui’s name means tui-bird's perch. He converted to Christianity and was part of Alfred Brown's congregation at Tauranga. On 22 May 1842 Tāraia Ngākuti Te Tumuhuia (?-1872) from Thames led a taua that attacked Ōngare Pā in Katikati. Te Paetui was one of those killed and eaten. His mutilated remains minus his head were taken to Te Papa Mission on 24 May 1842 and buried in Mission Cemetery (Otamataha Pā) by Alfred Brown. When Te Paetui's head was discovered in a potato store at Ōngare  it was brought to Tauranga where Alfred Brown buried it with the body of fellow signatory Stephen Tui on 9 June 1842. 

 

6. Te Kou [Te Kouorehua / Te Kou o Rehua] (?-1865)

Iwi: Ngāti Pūkenga 

Hapū: Te Tāwera

The son of Taitaui and Hineikakea, and husband of Ripeka, Te Kou was the only rangatira (chief) from Ngāti Pūkenga to sign the Treaty as he believed that his lands, persons and property would be protected. He was taught by Alfred Brown and could read and write and was the most influential chief of the Ngāti Pūkenga tribe. He is said to have been related to Tāraia Ngākuti Te Tumuhuia (?-1872) and assisted him in his attacks on Ngāi Te Rangi at Te Papa, Te Taumata and Ōngare Pā (22 May 1842).

During the 1850s and 1860s he was involved in negotiations with the Crown. In 1852 he moved to Manaia. Ngāti Pūkenga oral traditions state that Te Kou gave the Crown an undertaking that he would not take up arms against the Crown but after the 1864 battles his land at Tauranga was confiscated anyway. After this Te Kou said “Friend, release my land at Tauranga because I am a man without offence. I have committed no offence. If I had gone to fight at Tauranga and Waikato it would then have been right to punish me, that is my people. While you were fighting at Waikato and at Tauranga I lived quietly at Hauraki.” Te Kou died at Manaia in September 1865.

 

7. Reko (?-1842)

Iwi: Ngāi Te Rangi

Hapū: Ngāi Tūkairangi (Matapihi)

Reko was the son of Puhirake, his name meaning white dogskin cape. His brother was Whakapa (?-1820), chief of Mauao, who was killed when Mauao was attacked in 1820. Reko was taken prisoner during the massacre at Otamataha Pa at Te Papa in 1828. He converted to Christianity and was part of Alfred Brown's congregation at Tauranga. On 22 May 1842 Tāraia Ngākuti Te Tumuhuia (?-1872) from Thames led a taua that attacked Ōngare Pā in Katikati. Reko was one of those killed and eaten. Later his head, along with Te Whanake's, was rolled into the middle of a Māori church service at Te Puru (about 10 miles from present day Thames). Reko’s nephew was Rāwiri Tuaia Puhirake (c1814-1864) who led Tauranga iwi during the Battle of Gate Pā (29 April 1864) but was killed during the Battle of Te Ranga on 21 June 1864.

 

8. Tari [Tare] (?->1864)

Iwi: Ngāi Te Rangi

Hapū: Ngāi Tūkairangi (Matapihi)

The son of Huitao and brother of Te Whanake. On 30 January 1837 Tari helped to level the ground at Te Papa where Alfred Brown’s raupo (rush) house was to be built. Tari signed the first Deed of Sale for the Te Papa Block of land to Alfred Brown and the Church Missionary Society (CMS) on 30 September 1838.

Two of Tari's children died just day’s apart in November of 1842 and were buried by Alfred Brown who refers to him as ‘Tare’ in his journals. Another child died in September 1843. On 2 July 1844 Tari gave evidence that the sale of land to CMS was genuine. He was one of 112 who surrendered at Te Papa on 25 July 1864 after the Tauranga battles. It was noted that he was an ‘old man’ from Ko Tana Hapu Ko Ngaitiekairangi.

  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (30 January 1837). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850).
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (18 January 1842). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850).
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (15 November 1842). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850).
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (16 November 1842). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850).
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (22 September 1843). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850).
  • O'Malley, Vincent (1996). Supporting documents to the report of Vincent O'Malley "The Te Papa Block: A history of Church Missionary Society and Crown dealings, 1838-1867".
  • Rice, H. E. (26 July 1864). 3425.01.24. Copy of a Despatch from Governor Sir George Grey K.C.B., to the Right Honourable Edward Cardwell, M.P. Government House, Auckland (pp. 86-89). British Parliamentary Papers. Colonies: New Zealand (GBPP). (The University of Waikato - Te Whare Wananga o Waikato).  
  • Stokes, Evelyn (1997). The allocation of Reserves for Maori in the Tauranga Confiscated Lands (Vol 2, p. 330)
  • Stokes, Evelyn (2002). Wiremu Tamihana Rangatira (pp. 96, 99, 105).
  • Waitangi Tribunal (2004). Te Raupatu o Tauranga Moana: Report on the Tauranga Confiscation Claims (pp. 53, 499).

 

9. Te Matatāhuna (?->1840)

Iwi: Ngāi Te Rangi

Hapū: ?

Te Matatāhuna was a Ngāi Te Rangi rangatira (chief) who signed the Tauranga Treaty of Waitangi sheet with his tana tohu (his mark or sign) at Tauranga in April or May of 1840.

 

10. Te Konikoni (?->1840)

Iwi: Ngāi Te Rangi

Hapū: ?

Te Konikoni was a Ngāi Te Rangi rangatira (chief) who signed the Tauranga Treaty of Waitangi sheet with his tana tohu (his mark or sign) at Tauranga in April or May of 1840.

 

11. Tanarumia (?->1840)

Iwi: Ngāi Te Rangi

Hapū: ?

Tanarumia was a Ngāi Te Rangi rangatira (chief) who signed the Tauranga Treaty of Waitangi sheet with his tana tohu (his mark or sign) at Tauranga in April or May of 1840.

 

12. Nuka [Nuka Taipari] (c1800-1863)

Iwi: Ngāi Te Rangi

Hapū: Ngāti Hē (Maungatapu Pā)

Nuka Taipari was the principal rangatira (chief) and a tohunga (priest) of Maungatapu Pā during the 1830s and 1840s. Henry Williams describes him as being ‘of engaging manners and admirable bearing’. Nuka had several wives and was involved in many battles with Te Arawa. In 1839 Nuka extended an invitation to Jean Baptiste François Pompallier (1801-1871) to establish a Catholic station at Tauranga. In May 1840 he told Thomas Bunbury (1791-1861) that all the chiefs at Maungatapu Pā had signed the Treaty apart from two who were away. Nuka consulted Alfred Brown on 16 August 1842 about selling land between Tauranga and Maketu, thinking that "hostile tribes might be deterred from passing through an English settlement in order to carry on their savage warfare." In 1847 Nuka asked Alfred Brown to hold some money for him towards a vessel he hoped to buy for his iwi. In 1848 he purchased the schooner Highlander. Towards the end of his life his mental state became fragile. Nuka died on 8 November 1863.

  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (22 November 1836). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850).
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (3 January 1837). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850).
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (3 June 1838). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850).
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (19 October 1838). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850).
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (30 December 1838). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850).
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (19 February 1840). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850).
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (7 January 1844). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850).
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (13 February 1844). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850).
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (16 February 1847). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850).
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (25 February 1847). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850).
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (17 May 1848). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850).
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (13 October 1849). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850).
  • Edwards, Noeline (1950). Archdeacon Brown - Missionary (p. 116).
  • Gifford, W. H. & Williams, H. B. (1940). A Centennial History of Tauranga (pp. 47-48, 59, 106, 139, 140, 155, 158, 168).
  • Melvin, L. W. (1962). Te Waharoa of the Ngatihaua (Journal of the Polynesian Society, Vol. 71, No. 4, p. 376)
  • Oliver, Steven (1990). Nuka Taipari (Te Ara - the Encyclopaedia of New Zealand).
  • Orange, Claudia (1987). The Treaty of Waitangi (p. 75).
  • Stokes, Evelyn (2002). Wiremu Tamihana Rangatira (pp. 97, 104).
  • Waitangi Tribunal (2004). Te Raupatu o Tauranga Moana: Report on the Tauranga Confiscation Claims (p. 53).

 

13. Te Tūtahi [Hokohoko Tutahi] (c1810-c1860)

Iwi: Ngāi Te Rangi / Ngāti Pūkenga 

Hapū: Ngāti Hē (Maungatapu Pā

Te Tūtahi led one of the three Ngāti Hē sections of Te Whānau Whero and Ngāti Whare. He was renowned as a fighting chief. Tūtahi signed the Tauranga Treaty of Waitangi sheet with his tana tohu (his mark or sign) at Tauranga in April or May of 1840. 

Note: Awanui Black believes that Tutahi was not the father of Hori Ngatai: "He was the father of Taiaho Hōri Ngātai (c1832-1912) who fought during the Battles of Gate Pā & Te Ranga in 1864."

Is there a connection here?: http://www.28maoribattalion.org.nz/user/ngarino

  • Black, Awanui (personal communication, 2015 & 24 May 2016).
  • McCauley, Debbie (2012). Taiaho Hōri Ngātai (c1832-1912) (last updated: 7 February 2016).
  • Stokes, Evelyn (1997). The allocation of Reserves for Maori in the Tauranga Confiscated Lands (Vol 2, p. 343).

 

14. Te Pōhoi (?->1840)

Iwi: Ngāi Te Rangi

Hapū: ?

Pōhoi means 'bunch of feathers worn in the ear'. Te Pōhoi was a Ngāi Te Rangi rangatira (chief) who signed the Tauranga Treaty of Waitangi sheet with his tana tohu (his mark or sign) at Tauranga in April or May of 1840.

Note: Graham Cameron (descendant of Te Pōhoi Te Tahatika) confirms that Te Pōhoi who signed the Treaty in 1840 is in no way related to Te Pōhoi Te Tahatika.

 

15. Putarahi (?->1840)

Iwi: Ngāi Te Rangi

Hapū: Ngāti Hē (Maungatapu Pā)

Putarahi was a Ngāi Te Rangi rangatira (chief) who signed the Tauranga Treaty of Waitangi sheet with his tana tohu (his mark or sign) at Tauranga in April or May of 1840.

 

16. Pikitia (?->1840)

Iwi: Ngāi Te Rangi

Hapū: ?

Pikitia was a Ngāi Te Rangi rangatira (chief) who signed the Tauranga Treaty of Waitangi sheet with his tana tohu (his mark or sign) at Tauranga in April or May of 1840.

Note: On this page the father middle name is Pikitia - a possible link? http://tauranga.kete.net.nz/remembering_war/topics/show/2407

 

17. Te Mako (?->1840)

Iwi: Ngāi Te Rangi

Hapū: ?

Te Mako (the mako shark) was a Ngāi Te Rangi rangatira (chief) who signed the Tauranga Treaty of Waitangi sheet with his tana tohu (his mark or sign) at Tauranga in April or May of 1840.

 

18. Te Peika (?->1840)

Iwi: Ngāi Te Rangi

Hapū: ?

Te Peika was a Ngāi Te Rangi rangatira (chief) who signed the Tauranga Treaty of Waitangi sheet with his tana tohu (his mark or sign) at Tauranga in April or May of 1840.

 

19. Kapa (?->1866)

Iwi: Ngāti Ranginui

Hapū: Ngāti Tapu / Te Materawaho

Kapa was the son of Waikawa. He signed the second Deed of Sale for the Te Papa Block of land to Alfred Brown and the Church Missionary Society (CMS) on 30 March 1839. Kapa was listed as living in Judea in 1866. He was the only rangatira (chief) from Ngāti Ranginui to sign the treaty.

Note: There were two chiefs with similar names in Tauranga Moana in 1840, Kapa and Kape. Kape was from Ngāi Tamarāwaho and signed the first and second Deeds of Sale for the Te Papa Block to Alfred Brown and the Church Missionary Society (CMS) on 30 September 1838 and 30 March 1839. He did not sign the Treaty.

  • Ihaka, Puhirake (personal communication, 25 May 2016).
  • O'Malley, Vincent (1996). Supporting documents to the report of Vincent O'Malley "The Te Papa Block: A history of Church Missionary Society and Crown dealings, 1838-1867"
  • Steedman, John Aramete Wairehu (1996). He Toto: Te Ahu Matua a Nga Tupuna (p. 273).
  • Stokes, Evelyn (1997). The allocation of Reserves for Maori in the Tauranga Confiscated Lands (Vol 1, p. 246).
  • Stokes, Evelyn (1997). The allocation of Reserves for Maori in the Tauranga Confiscated Lands (Vol 2, p. 252).
  • Waitangi Tribunal (2004). Te Raupatu o Tauranga Moana: Report on the Tauranga Confiscation Claims (pp. 53, 216).

 

20. Te Haere Roa [Te Haereroa] (?->1840)

Iwi: Ngāi Te Rangi

Hapū: Te Materawaho

Te Haere Roa was the son of Tangatahe and his wife Hinenehu. He signed the Tauranga Treaty of Waitangi sheet with his tana tohu (his mark or sign) at Tauranga in April or May of 1840Te Haere Roa was the father of Tahu who signed the first Deed of Sale for the Te Papa Block of land to Alfred Brown and CMS on 30 September 1838 and the second Deed of Sale on 30 March 1839.

  • Nicholas, Patrick (2000). Ngati Tapu & Te Materawaho: Manawhenua Report (pp. 18 & 20).
  • O'Malley, Vincent (1996). Supporting documents to the report of Vincent O'Malley "The Te Papa Block: A history of Church Missionary Society and Crown dealings, 1838-1867".
  • Steedman, John Aramete Wairehu (1996). He Toto: Te Ahu Matua a Nga Tupuna (p. 244).
  • Stokes, Evelyn (1997). The allocation of Reserves for Maori in the Tauranga Confiscated Lands (Vol 2, p. 226).
  • Waitangi Tribunal (2004). Te Raupatu o Tauranga Moana: Report on the Tauranga Confiscation Claims (pp. 53, 216).

 

21. Hoani Āneta [John ArnettAhikaiata] (?-1854) : signatory & witness

Iwi: Ngāti Awa

Hapū: Patuwai (Mōtītī Island north)

Hoani Āneta is thought to be Ahikaiata, who was the son of Takorokaho. In January 1818 Ngāpuhi chief Te Morenga (c1760-1834) arrived in the Bay of Plenty armed with muskets on a raid to avenge the death of his sister. When he reached Tauranga, Te Ahikaiata of the Patuwai iwi on Mōtītī Island, asked Te Morenga to attack Te Waru’s pā of Matarehua (Ngāi Te Rangi) in the south of the island. A 'considerable slaughter' followed. Te Ahikaiata’s motive was to settle a feud which had existed between Te Patuwai tribe and Te Whanau-a-Tauwhao for nearly 200 years. Smith (p. 90).

Baptised by Alfred Brown on 12 January 1840, Hoani Āneta worked as his mission assistant and a lay preacher, likely based at Ōtūmoetai Pā for a time. Brown likely gave him the last name Arnett after his first wife Charlotte Arnett (c1796-1855). Hoani Āneta was a witness to the first 17 signatures on the Treaty, but signed himself with three others during a second signing. He was the last to sign the Treaty. Hoani died on 17 April 1854.


Witness: Henry Taylor (?->1840) 

Henry Taylor may have been a flax gatherer. He was possibly known as ‘Te Ra’ and lived with Ngāi Te Rangi at Te Tumu Pā (Kaituna) with his Māori wife and children. A story tells how his wife and children were taken as slaves by Arawa after their attack on Te Tumu in 1836. Passing Mokoia Island at Rotorua, Taylor told trader Philip Tapsell (1777-1873) what had happened. Tapsell paid a ransom for the family who then moved to Mokoia with him and his family. Taylor is said to have later settled in the Urewera’s and died in Whakatane.

  • Cowan, James (1935). A Trader in Cannibal Land (p. 141).
  • DESTOW: Descendants of the ‘English witnesses’ to the signatures of the Treaty of Waitangi.
  • Skarott, Mary. Research Librarian, Alexander Turnbull Library (personal communication, 22 December 2015).
  • Stokes, Evelyn (1980). A History of Tauranga County (p. 53).


Witness: James Stack (1801-1883)

James Stack (Te Taka) was born at Portsmouth, England on 1 September 1801. He was by trade a flax-dresser and weaver. Stack arrived in New Zealand as a Church Missionary Society (CMS) missionary in February 1823, married Mary West (1814-1850) in 1833, and reopened Te Papa Mission station with his family in 1837. He was in charge of the Mission Store. Stack witnessed both the first Deed of Sale for the Te Papa Block of land to Alfred Brown and CMS on 30 September 1838 and the second Deed of Sale on 30 March 1839.

In 1840 he witnessed the signing of the Tauranga Treaty Sheet before writing up two more copies at Bunbury’s request, forging William Hobson’s (1792-1842) signature. James returned the signed Tauranga Treaty to Hobson on 23 May 1840. He moved to the East Coast in 1842. In 1847 he returned to England where he had a mental breakdown and spent two years in hospital. Stack died in Southsea on 18 April 1883. 

Note: There are many mentions of James Stack in the Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown. Referenced below are just a small selection.

  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (24 May 1835). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850) - baptised infant son.
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (1 January 1836). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850) - bullets fired into his house at Mangapouri.
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (6 June 1836). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850) - bullets fired regretted by chief.
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (1 December 1836). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850). - 'fight' on it's way to Tauranga.
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (3 November 1837). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850) - leaving on the 'Columbine'.
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (17 August 1838). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850) - deaths at Ōtūmoetai & Maungatapu Pā's.
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (7 October 1838). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850) - visit with medicine to Ōtūmoetai & Maungatapu Pā's.
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (16 October 1838). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850) - war party to Maketu.
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (21 October 1838). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850) - war party to Maketu.
  • Brown, Alfred Nesbit (24 November 1838). Journal of the Rev. A. N. Brown (1835-1850) - Rotorua attack Tauranga.
  • Owens, J. M. R. (1982). The Wesleyan Missionaries to New Zealand before 1840.
  • Vennell, C. W. (1984). Brown and the Elms (p. 46).
  • Wilson, John Alexander (1889). Missionary Life and Work in New Zealand (pp. 57-58).

 

Where the Treaty went

Maungatapu Pā: In the 1840s Maungatapu Pā was a major stronghold in Tauranga. The pā had successfully resisted many attacks. In 1840 trader John Lees Faulkner stayed at Maungatapu Pā for a short time before taking up residence on land in Ōtūmoetai.

Te Papa Mission Station: This northern point of the Te Papa peninsula was once the site of the busy Otamataha Pā. In 1828, a raid by Ngāti Maru from the Thames district led to the death of most of the inhabitants and the abandonment of the pā. In 1834 the northern end of the Te Papa peninsula was chosen as the site for a Church Missionary Society (CMS) station which was established in 1838.

Ōtūmoetai Pā: Another strongly fortified pā in Tauranga, Ōtūmoetai Pā was described by Bunbury in 1840 as an extensive fortification, with about a thousand men in residence. That same year a Catholic chapel was erected at the eastern end of the pā on land gifted to Bishop Pompallier.

Te Tiriti o Waitangi (Tauranga Sheet)

Timeline

  • 1826: Population at Ōtūmoetai - 2,500.
  • 1835: (28 October): Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand signed at Waitangi.
  • 1839 (December): Reverend Alfred Nesbit Brown out of action due to eye disease.
  • 1840 (February): Te Arawa war party on Tauranga (600 warriors). Ngāi Te Rangi Chief Tupaea refuses to make peace.
  • 1840 (6 February): Treaty of Waitangi signed at Waitangi (Bay of Islands).
  • 1840 (7 March): Bishop Pompallier arrives at Ōtūmoetai Pā and the Ōtūmoetai Catholic Mission Station established.
  • 1840 (20 March): Meeting in Manukau includes some Tauranga chiefs but none would sign.
  • 1840 (late March): Rev. Henry Williams arrives in Tauranga aboard the schooner Ariel. He leaves a copy of the Treaty at Te Papa Mission Station for missionaries to gather signatures.
  • 1840: (1 April): Brown returns from Matamata.
  • 1840 (c.10 April): First 17 signatures on the Tauranga Treaty collected. Tupaea (Ōtūmoetai) refuses to sign.
  • 1840 (c.May): Last four signatures on the Tauranga Treaty collected.
  • 1840 (11 May): Major Thomas Bunbury arrives in Tauranga aboard the schooner Trent to check on signature gathering. He wrote 'I was agreeably surprised to learn that most of the Native chiefs in that neighbourhood had already signed the Treaty, with the exception of the principal chief and one or two of his friends at the Ōtūmoetai Pā'.
  • 1840: (23 May): James Stack returns the signed Tauranga Treaty to Hobson.
  • 1842: Three Treaty signatories killed when Ngati Maru chief Taraia destroys Wanaki's Pā at Ōngare near Katikati [Whanake, Te Paetui & Reko]. "The last authentic account of cannibalism was at Tauranga, in 1842 by Taraia Ngakuti Te Tumuhuia (c1792-1872). An argument between Te Tumuhuia and  Ngai Te Rangi chiefs of Tauranga rekindled a history animosity between the two tribes. Taraia’s mother had been killed in an olden battle, and her body carried off by Ngai Te Rangi for a cannibal meal. Taraia put together a war party of 50 men, and travelled up the Waihou River and over the mountains to Tauranga, timing his arrival with nightfall. Ōngare Pā near Katikati was taken by surprise, the chief Te Whanake and a number of followers killed, and captives taken as slaves."
  • 1845: Peace Treaty between Ngāi Te Rangi and Te Arawa.
  • 1864 (January): Military occupation of Tauranga.
  • 1864 (29 April): Battle of Gate Pā at Pukehinahina.
  • 1864 (21 June): Battle of Te Ranga.
  • 1864 (August): Confiscation of Tauranga lands.
  • 1867: Tauranga Bush Campaign.
  • 1981: Establishment of the Tauranga Moana Māori Trust Board.
  • 1981 (April): District Māori Council established.
  • 1981 (October): Compensation for confiscated land accepted by Tauranga Moana Trust Board.
  • 1998 (February): Waitangi Tribunal hearings at Huria Marae.
  • 2004: Waitangi Tribunal report on the Tauranga confiscation claims.
  • 2007: Return of Mauao to the three iwi: Ngāi Te Rangi, Ngāti Ranginui and Ngāti Pūkenga.
  • 2009: Settlement negotiations begin with the Crown.
  • 2010: Report on Tauranga Moana claims 1886-2006.
  • 2012: Ngāti Ranginui sign a Deed of Settlement at Te Ranga.
  • 2013 (7 April): Ngāti Pūkenga sign a Deed of Settlement.
  • 2013 (14 December): Ngāi Te Rangi and Ngā Pōtiki and the Crown sign a Deed of Settlement at Whareroa Marae.
  • 2014: Tauranga Moana Iwi Collective Deed of Settlement.

 

Selected Sources:

Archives New Zealand. Sheet 5 - The Tauranga Sheet.

Bay of Plenty Times (15 July 1887, p. 2).

Bunbury, Thomas (1861). Reminiscences of a Veteran: Being Personal and Military Adventures in Portugal, Spain, France, Malta, New South Wales, Norfolk Island, New Zealand, Andaman Islands, and India.

Edwards, Noeline (1950). Archdeacon Brown - Missionary.

King, Mike (presenter) (2009). Lost in Translation - The Tauranga Sheet (episode six).

Matheson, Alister & Oliver, Steven (1990). Hori Kingi Tupaea (Dictionary of New Zealand Biography).

New Zealand History: Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Tauranga Treaty copy.

Orange, Claudia (1990). An Illustrated History of the Treaty of Waitangi.

Orange, Claudia (1987). The Treaty of Waitangi.

Simpson, Miria (1990). Ngā tohu o te Tiriti: making a mark.

Stokes, Evelyn (1980). A History of Tauranga County.

The Treaty of Waitangi: The Journey of the Treaty.

Turton, Hanson H. (1883). An Epitome of Official Documents Relatives to Native Affairs and Land Purchases in the North Island of New Zealand.

University of Waikato. Fletcher Index of Māori Names. 

Vennell, C. W. (1984). Brown and the Elms.

Waitangi Tribunal Report (2004). Te Raupatu o Tauranga Moana: Report on the Tauranga Confiscation Claims (WAI 215) (pp. 52-54).

How to cite this page: McCauley, Debbie (2014). The Treaty of Waitangi in Tauranga: Te Tiriti o Waitangi ki Tauranga Moana by Debbie McCauley. Retrieved from http://tauranga.kete.net.nz/tauranga_local_history/topics/show/2423 (Tauranga Memories, last updated: *insert date*). In-text citation: (McCauley, 2014)

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The Treaty of Waitangi in Tauranga: Te Tiriti o Waitangi ki Tauranga Moana by Debbie McCauley


Year:1840
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The Treaty of Waitangi in Tauranga: Te Tiriti o Waitangi ki Tauranga Moana by Debbie McCauley by Debbie McCauley (Tauranga City Libraries) is Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International