Topic: Dancing with Information: Incorporating Information Literacy into the Waldorf Curriculum (2008) by Debbie McCauley

Topic type:

This research paper investigates the use of information literacy within New Zealand Rudolf Steiner schools and introduces a new information literacy model: DANCE. It was written by Debbie McCauley on 25 May 2008 as part of a BA in Humanities and Information & Library Studies.

Abstract

This study investigates the use of information literacy within New Zealand Rudolf Steiner schools by way of analysing the results of a questionnaire distributed to all of the nine Rudolf Steiner schools in February of 2008. Four of these were fully combined primary and high schools (year one to year twelve) and five were primary schools. The schools were asked how many students they had; if they employed a librarian and, if so, for how many hours per week; if they taught information literacy and/or library skills; if they used an information literacy model and, if so, which one; if they belonged to SLANZA (School Librarians Association of New Zealand Aotearoa) and if they were interested in forming a Waldorf librarians special interest group. The report is written for the principal of the Tauranga Rudolf Steiner School and summarises the study’s findings as well was identifying elements of information literacy that can be found in the existing curriculum documents created for that school by RAW Education Ltd. The “Dancing with Information” (DANCE) information literacy model, developed by the author in November of 2007, is presented along with the suggestion that this model be applied to the curriculum of the Tauranga Rudolf Steiner School. 

 

Introduction

Written for the principal of the Tauranga Rudolf Steiner School, the main purpose of this report is to research the usage of information literacy in New Zealand Rudolf Steiner schools, also known as Waldorf schools, and to propose a model of information literacy to be used within the curriculum. 

Rudolf Steiner was born in 1861 and died six years after the first school dedicated to his formula of education was opened in 1919. He developed his method as ‘there was a need for an education system by which people could learn to learn, and to go on learning throughout their lives’ (Childs, 1991, p. 42). As information literacy is seen as the key to lifelong learning Steiner’s method of education and information literacy practice would seem to share the same common goal. 

The Tauranga Rudolf Steiner School currently offers kindergarten and primary school education to Class Six (Year Seven). The author has worked part-time as the school librarian for the past three years and studied the concept of information literacy as part of Open Polytechnic studies. In 2007 the author was approached by a colleague to teach information literacy in conjunction with him over a four week period to a combined Class Six (Year Seven) and Seven (Year Eight). This highlighted the fact that there is no formal program to teach information literacy within the school and warranted an investigation into what other New Zealand Rudolf Steiner schools were teaching which could result in the development of the school’s own programme. 

Teaching information literacy to students demonstrates a commitment to their future and is in keeping with one of the eight New Zealand school curriculum essential skills, as identified by the Ministry of Education (the Ministry), called information skills. 

Students will: identify, locate, gather, store, retrieve, and process information from a range of sources; organise, analyse, synthesize, evaluate, and use information; present information clearly, logically, concisely, and accurately; identify, describe, and interpret different points of view, and distinguish fact from opinion; use a range of information-retrieval and information-processing technologies confidently and competently. (Ministry of Education, n.d.)

The Ministry states that these skills are to be developed by all students across the whole curriculum throughout the years of schooling. Incorporating an information literacy model into the curriculum of the Tauranga Rudolf Steiner School would meet the Ministry’s requirement and further enhance the understanding of the concept of information literacy from both the teachers and children’s perspectives.

At Rudolf Steiner schools, computers are introduced to the children at a later stage than in state schools. There is not yet a local Rudolf Steiner high school and children leave the school at the end of Class Seven (Year Eight). Most head to local state schools where students have already been using information technology (IT) and probably have been taught an information literacy model. According to Mortimer (2001) information literacy is ‘the ability to find, organise and use information’ (p. 90). Information literacy includes traditional literacy’s but also encompasses computer literacy, IT literacy, library skills, information skills and learning to learn which lead to lifelong learning (Bruce, 2003, p.8).

Teachers and parents have expressed concern that students moving on to state schools are behind in their information literacy training and could find researching difficult. This report will investigate information literacy in New Zealand Rudolf Steiner schools, identify information literacy elements that already exist within the curriculum of the Tauranga Rudolf Steiner School and present an information literacy model that could be incorporated into the curriculum. 

The key research questions are:

  • What are the information literacy requirements of children in New Zealand Rudolf Steiner schools and what model of information literacy instruction best suits the special character curriculum of these schools? 
  • What information literacy elements can be identified within the existing curriculum documents developed for the Tauranga Rudolf Steiner School by RAW Education Ltd?

 

Methodology

After constructing a literature review it was decided that the most efficient way of identifying the information required on the current teaching of information literacy was by means of a questionnaire. This method was chosen and restricted to New Zealand due to the tight time-frames for completion of the research and report. After formulation it was posted as this was felt to be the easiest and most cost-effective way to survey the nine existing schools. Tauranga Rudolf Steiner School was included in the survey as it was considered by the author that the reply would not compromise the integrity of the end report. 

The questions posed sought answers to the following questions:

  • Is the school primary, secondary or full?
  • How many students are in the school?
  • Is there a librarian employed at the school?
  • If so, how many hours are they employed for?
  • Is information literacy taught?
  • Are library skills taught?
  • If information literacy is taught, which model?
  • Does the librarian belong to SLANZA?
  • Is the librarian interested in forming a Waldorf Librarians Special Interest Group?

While questionnaires pose a number of limitations, for example how the respondent fills in the form and how much extra information they are willing to share, Helen Slyfield (2001) managed to successfully carry out her comprehensive assessment of information literacy in New Zealand schools using this same method. A fairly major weakness is the small pool of New Zealand Rudolf Steiner Schools available which restricted the range of respondents. 

The questionnaires were posted on Monday 18th February 2008 with a covering letter, diagram of information literacy and a self-addressed envelope. The last questionnaire was returned on 4 April 2008. A 100% return rate was achieved after the issuing of a couple of emailed “gentle reminders”. Un-surveyed schools included Coromandel Rudolf Steiner School as the school has closed and is only operating a kindergarten at present and Dunedin Rudolf Steiner School as they have only 24 pupils at present and no library or librarian. 

The data gathered has been analysed to create a picture of the size of the schools in relation to what is being taught with relation to library skills and/or information literacy in Rudolf Steiner schools throughout New Zealand.

The ethical issues relating to the questionnaire have been upheld as:

  • The subjects were told what the information will be used for.
  • The research query was laid out honestly.
  • All forms were signed for consent to use the information as part of the research project.
  • Respect was shown for the subjects.
  • The covering letter indicated that the project is part of a study course and that there will be no dissemination of information about individual schools or people beyond the course supervisor and the author. 
  • The confidentiality of the name of each school and questionnaire respondent has been upheld and divulged only to the academic supervisor.
  • The academic supervisor’s contact details were given as well as the author’s in case the respondents have further questions.
  • The respondents were given the right to withdraw their responses at any time up until two weeks from the deadline.
  • The respondents have been offered a copy of the research report.

 

Findings

A total of five primary schools were surveyed and five results were received giving a 100% return rate. The results of this questionnaire are shown in Table 1:

Table 1:  Analysis of questionnaire results from primary schools

Students

140

140

103

69

56

Employed Librarian

Yes

No, parent volunteer

No

No, parent volunteer

No, parent volunteer

Weekly paid hours

12

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Information literacy/library skills

Library Skills /some information literacy taught to older classes

None

Library Skills

None

Library Skills during public library visits

Info lit model used?

Being developed

None

None

None

None

Belong to SLANZA

Yes

No

No

No

No

Interested in forming a Waldorf Librarians Special Interest Group?

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Completed by

Librarian

Principal

Teacher

Admin istrator

Administrator

 

Results from full schools

A total of four full schools were surveyed and four results were received giving a 100% return rate. The results of this questionnaire are shown in Table 2:

 

Table 2:  Analysis of questionnaire results from full schools

Students

450

370

345

320

Employed Librarian

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Weekly paid hours

35

30

32

30

Information literacy/library skills

Library Skills

Library Skills

Library Skills

Library Skills /some info lit skills taught to individual classes

Info lit model used?

Being developed

None

None

None

Belong to SLANZA

Yes

Yes

No

No

Interested in forming a Waldorf Librarians Special Interest Group?

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Completed by

Librarian

Librarian

Librarian

Librarian

 

Discussion

The survey results indicated that two primary schools had the same number of students, but only one employed a librarian, the other relied on parent volunteers. Parent volunteers were also relied on at the two other primary schools with one school apparently not having either a school librarian or parent volunteers carrying out this job. Library skills were taught at three primary schools, one of those during visits to the public library. One primary school taught information literacy to older classes and was in the middle of developing an information literacy model. 

All four full schools employed a librarian for thirty hours or more, and all taught library skills with one teaching some information literacy to individual classes and one in the process of developing an information literacy model. Half the full school librarians belonged to SLANZA and two thirds were interested in forming a Waldorf librarian’s special interest group.

The evidence from New Zealand Rudolf Steiner schools demonstrates that none have formally adopted an information literacy model although two are in the process of development. Full Rudolf Steiner schools have shown a commitment to their school library by all employing a school librarian while only one primary school has followed suit. Most of these librarians teach library skills to their classes but as this study demonstrates, there exists a lack of formal information literacy training within all New Zealand Rudolf Steiner schools. 

 

Recommendations

In light of this research the following investigations are recommended in order to improve the chances of information literacy being taught in New Zealand Rudolf Steiner Schools.

  • Further investigations need to be carried out to assess the reasons why information literacy is not well supported at most Rudolf Steiner Schools in New Zealand.
  • Investigation needs to be carried out into the forming of a Waldorf Librarians Special Interest Group which could meet yearly to discuss these and other relevant issues.
  • Contact could be made with National Library’s School Services division to discuss the issues and how they may be able to assist New Zealand Rudolf Steiner Schools incorporate information literacy into their curriculums.
  • Investigation of professional development funding for Waldorf Librarians to attend training sessions on information literacy and/or Waldorf Librarian meetings.
  • Encourage Waldorf Librarians to join SLANZA.  The $40 per year membership fee is usually met by the school employing the librarian.

 

Information Literacy elements in the Tauranga Rudolf Steiner School Curriculum

The author explored the RAW Education Ltd curriculum documents prepared for the Tauranga Rudolf Steiner School to identify information literacy elements that may already exist. These documents were specifically created for the school as a guide to the delivery of the special character curriculum and are frequently referred to by the teachers. This investigation was felt to be relevant to the research as the existing elements of information literacy indicate that there are incomplete areas requiring further development in order to deliver an information literate curriculum to the students.

In line with the philosophy of the school, Class One (Year Two) do not use the school library and Class Two (Year Three) begin visiting the library in term three. The school goes to Class Six (Year Seven) this year but next year will extend to Class Seven (Year Eight). It was decided to include the Class Seven (Year Eight) curriculum documents as preparatory work needs to be carried out by the librarian to ensure sufficient resources are available to support the teaching of information literacy in the 2009 Class Seven (Year Eight) curriculum. The elements identified in this investigation into the curriculum documents can be seen in Appendix A.

Information elements identified within these documents include many suitable research topics where an information literacy model would be extremely helpful; in addition there were references to:

  • Planning a research project.
  • Identifying, retrieving, gathering, selecting and recording information.
  • Interpreting and presenting coherent information.
  • Receiving in-depth library skills training.
  • Learning the Dewey Decimal System.
  • Carrying out library research.
  • Using a variety of sources including periodicals, encyclopaedias, CD-ROMs, websites and audio recordings to help with research.
  • Learning the use of contents pages verses indexes.
  • Selecting and reading appropriate material for research.
  • Skim reading and recording key points.
  • Using quotes to illustrate a research topic.
  • Formally ordering a bibliography.
  • Using computer software to create spreadsheets, graphs, pie charts and a school newsletter.
  • Exploring different presentation styles.
  • Describing the process used to find the information (RAW Education, n.d.).

 

Discussion

The evidence from the curriculum documents shows that there are already several elements of information literacy embedded within the curriculum. On close examination it was found that these elements make up the focus of information literacy projects but in essence “what” to do is described but not “how” to do it. A model, with its ability to guide and focus student’s research, is required.  This would serve to build a successful information literacy programme where students carry out full investigations into their topics.

As can be seen from the curriculum documents, library use, reading and library skills are all part of the current curriculum. From discussions with teachers and from direct observation, in practice many of these elements are lacking; for instance, the maintaining of reading records. This is unfortunate as these records provide a valuable resource for the librarian, the parents and the teacher. They show what books the student is enjoying, which level they are reading at and how much they are actually reading, as well as providing a basis for recommending what to read next. 

 

Recommendations

This report has identified many elements of information literacy already in existence within the curriculum documents but recommends the following be implemented to raise the standard of student’s knowledge and involvement with the school library.

  • The school adopts an information literacy model to be used across the curriculum.
  • ‘Class Four (Year Five): Taught how to keep reading records. 
  • Class Five (Year Six): Creation of an A5 personal reading record book.
  • Class Six (Year Seven): Creation of a library work book with an illustrated cover, title and contents page.
  • Class Seven (Year Eight): Creation of a library work book with their own imaginative title, author and publisher.  Students create their own publisher’s symbol and study parts of a book: copyright page, dedications, introductions, table of contents, blurbs, glossary, bibliography with notes and exercises on each aspect’ (F. Evers-Swindell, personal communication, 4 April, 2008).
  • In Class Seven (Year Eight) students explore ‘Google Earth’ as well as the national geographic site recommended by the curriculum documents.
  • Students are briefly introduced to the Dewey Decimal system in Class Four (Year Five) and carry out a more comprehensive study into the system in Class Six (Year Seven).
  • Students are taught to keep accurate records of title, author and numbers of pages read within their reading record.
  • From Class Five (Year Six) students earn reading certificates for each term’s work.
  • Investigate the possibility of incorporating the study of ancient libraries as part of the main lesson work e.g. the Royal Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt and ancient libraries of Greece and Rome.

 

Information Literacy Model: DANCE

The many different models of information literacy available share a common methodology covering definition of the query, accessing resources, use of information and evaluation of the process. The author found the names of existing models uninspiring and unreflective of the fact that the information literacy process was literally about “dancing with information”. The author developed the DANCE model in November of 2007 as an alternative which could be presented artistically to students.  The name is memorable and could both inspire and assist students of any age who are carrying out research. The model encapsulates the following within the DANCE mnemonic:

DANCE

Information literacy model: Dancing with information

D = Define

Why - know what the purpose is

When is the information needed? - make a timeline

How much information is needed? - how many sources

What information is needed?

Mind-mapping/Brainstorming

Prior knowledge

Write some questions - identify keywords and alternate words

What possible sources are available?

A = Access

Location - library catalogues, subject indexes, databases, search engines, librarians

Look at publication dates, author authority, indexes and contents pages

Keep publication details for the bibliography

Skim read

Take notes

Evaluate - accuracy, reliability, quality

N = Narrate

Use your own ‘voice’ - give your own opinions

Logically organise the information - assess its relevancy

Interpret the information

Write a bibliography

Avoid plagiarism and copyright

Use of the information - ethical, legal, moral

Problem solve

 

C = Communicate

Ideas are clear

Clear, creative presentation

Valid opinions - can you defend your opinion

Use the correct presentation and format

Be confident in your work

So others can learn from the work

What were your conclusions?

 

E = Evaluate

Are you proud of your work?

What was the most successful search?

What was the hardest part of DANCE?

Could the process be improved and how?

Did someone else learn from your work?

Did you learn from your work? - did you gain knowledge and understanding

Are your library skills adequate?

Are your computer skills adequate?

Do you need help in any area?

 

 

McCauley, D. (2007)

Discussion

In today’s information age there is an ever increasing and often relentless amount of information bombarding people. In order to empower students to cope with, disseminate and pass on this information to others they need to be taught the essential skills of information literacy. Teaching information literacy demonstrates commitment to their future. The DANCE model, while not specifically designed for any particular type of schooling system, is an alternative information literacy model which could be adapted for use within the Waldorf Curriculum. The author is currently investigating a creative commons licence and what degree of protection would be appropriate for the model.

 

Recommendations

As a result of the survey carried out, the investigation into elements of information literacy to be found in the Tauranga Rudolf Steiner School’s curriculum documents and the author’s development of her own information literacy model the following is recommended.

  • Commitment to achieving information literacy is sought from teachers as well as library staff.  
  • Library Staff and teachers work as a partnership towards a common goal by integrating and emphasising information literacy across the curriculum. This is encouraged by the Ministry of Education (2002, p. 11) who states that schools can support information literacy by having ‘a shared educational philosophy and a commitment by all staff to integrating an information process model across the curriculum’.  Adopting DANCE would show the schools commitment to information literacy to the Ministry of Education.
  • The teachers and librarian work in partnership using the DANCE model as a tool to clarify thinking when it comes to seeking and using information.
  • The librarian designs charts for teachers and students use.
  • A modified version may be prepared for each class depending on their maturity.
  • The librarian reinforces the DANCE model with students who are carrying out research in the school library.
  • Teachers and librarian’s could collaborate on research projects whose focus would be more problem solving rather than reports full of facts.
  • Investigation into the feasibility of setting up a computer suite or into the cost and feasibility of wiring up the library OPAC to the internet to allow for Class Six (Year Seven) and Class Seven’s (Year Eight’s) guided research. 
  • The librarian builds up information literacy resources as the budget allows.
  • The librarian could investigate the development of a library website link from the school website and explore the possibility of providing links to reliable information sources from this webpage.
  • DANCE is synthesised into the existing syllabus.
  • The teacher and librarian can collaboratively lead the children in this dance with information literacy.
  • Research into the level of creative commons licence on the model to be applied by the author.

 

Conclusion

This research paper has investigated the use of information literacy within New Zealand Rudolf Steiner schools by way of analysing the results of a questionnaire distributed to nine schools, identified elements of information literacy in existing curriculum documents and proposed a new information literacy model. A 100% success return rate was achieved from the four full schools and five primary schools surveyed. The results showed that information literacy was not well supported within most of these schools as the Ministry states is should be. The reasons for this are unclear and require further investigation. Library skills are taught in most schools and this could easily be extended, with the help of an information literacy model, to cover all the areas required by the Ministry. 

The elements of information literacy found within the Tauranga Rudolf Steiner School’s own curriculum documents prepared by RAW Education Ltd were identified. This investigation has led the author to conclude that information literacy elements are readily available throughout the Waldorf curriculum and that the use of an information literacy model would place this into a more formal and cohesive format easily recognisable by teachers, library staff, parents and students. 

The author’s information literacy model “Dancing with Information” was presented along with recommendation that it be applied to the curriculum of the Tauranga Rudolf Steiner School, thereby giving the students a tool to use when researching and satisfying Ministry requirements. This model, if successful, could also be offered to other New Zealand Rudolf Steiner schools, thus providing an interconnected approach to information literacy within this special character curriculum and forming closer ties between the specialist Waldorf librarians.

 

APPENDIX A:

Information Literacy elements identified in the Tauranga Rudolf Steiner School curriculum documents prepared by RAW Education Ltd

Class Two (Year Three)

  • ‘Look at illustrated large print books of fairy tales which they select from the school library. Using the illustrations, tell the teacher what might be happening’ (English Curriculum, Class Two, p. 22).
  • ‘Shared reading. Using students who can read, older students or aides, a small group selects a book and follows text as leader reads’ (English Curriculum, Class Two, p. 22).
  • ‘Generate their own reading material from their own stories to share with partners’ (English Curriculum, Class Two, p. 23).
  • ‘Select nonfiction illustrated books from a selection supplied by the teacher and connected to such main lesson themes as: animals in the garden, making a bird table’ (English Curriculum, Class Two, p. 23).

 

Class Three (Year Four)

  • ‘Use books to investigate traditional Maori fishing techniques, and attitudes, and discuss the materials used’ (Science Curriculum, Class Three, p. 14).
  • ‘Write simple reports arising from the field trip’ (Science Curriculum, Class Three, p. 10).
  • 'Investigate the history of words like penny, shilling, pound, dollars and present charts of explanation. Investigate the minting of coins’ (Science Curriculum, Class Three, p. 17).
  • ‘They present their book to the class stating the name of the book and the author.  They give a short synopsis of the book and say who would enjoy it’ (English Curriculum, Class Three, p. 19).
  • 'Children browse a selection of books – fact and fiction – related to a Main Lessons theme e.g. Time. These are discussed and compared in groups. They design a new jacket for the book’ (English Curriculum, Class Three, p. 21).
  • ‘Investigate how food plant care has changed over time. Visit local pa sites’ (Social Studies Curriculum, Class Three, p. 11).
  • ‘The students will investigate and discuss the social context which necessitated and produced the time keeping device. They will investigate the cultural background and derivation of issues such as 12 months; 12 hours; sixty minutes/seconds; tides’ (Technology Curriculum, Class Three, p. 16).
  • ‘The students will investigate the history of products like butter, yoghurt and cheese and see how these are made and used differently in different societies’ (Technology Curriculum, Class Three, p. 19).

 

Class Four (Year Five)

  • ‘There are usually four Practise Lessons per week, consisting of 45 minute periods, distributed evenly throughout the week, placed after morning break – if possible before lunch time. At least one of these is devoted to sustained silent reading’ (English Curriculum, Class Four, p. 3).
  • ‘They keep a note book for recording the books they have read at home and at school’ (English Curriculum, Class Four, p. 19).
  • ‘Children have to choose, and read, a fiction and non-fiction book on the theme: animals’ (English Curriculum, Class Four, p. 19).
  • ‘Identify, retrieve, record, and present coherent information, using more than one source and type of technology, and describing the process used’ (English Curriculum, Class Four, p. 9).

 

Class Five (Year Six)

  • ‘Explain, using information from personal observation and library research, where and how a range of familiar New Zealand plants live’ (Science Curriculum, Class Five, p. 12).
  • ‘Investigate how height and topography affect human activities e.g. sheep farming in Otago, skiing in Tongariro’ (Science Curriculum, Class Five, p. 8).
  • ‘Follow the fruit production process of kiwifruit from vine to market seeing how our fruit is marketed and sold using our “green” image overseas’ (Science Curriculum, Class Five, p. 11).
  • ‘Investigate how lost languages are deciphered’ (Social Studies Curriculum, Class Five, p. 8).
  • ‘Investigate how societies respond to bereavement, in particular discuss with Maori elders the purpose and style of a Tangi’ (Social Studies Curriculum, Class Five, p. 8).

 

Class Six (Year Seven)

  • 'Students are directed to source, select and read appropriate material to research an individual project related to the study of Rome. They learn to include their bibliography with formal ordering' (English Curriculum, Class Six, p. 27).
  • ‘They read two novels in the same genre’ (English Curriculum, Class Six, p. 27)
  • ‘Students exchange books in a weekly library period.  Sustained, silent reading is encouraged. They read at least two books in a linked series e.g. Narnia’ (English Curriculum, Class Six, p. 25).
  • ‘Students choose, and read, a fiction and non-fiction book to background a Social Studies topic e.g. Geography of the south-west Pacific. They use quotes to illustrate a research topic’ (English Curriculum, Class Six, p. 26).
  • ‘Use the manual filing system of the school’s library and computer filing system of public libraries to source information’ (English Curriculum, Class Six, p. 8).
  • ‘Use audio recordings to help with project research e.g. dramatisations of Scott and the Antarctic’ (English Curriculum, Class Six, p. 11).

 

Class Seven (Year Eight)

  • ‘How many and what types of pets do people have at home? They survey students from another class, summarize results using a spreadsheet and create a graph.  Publish results in a class book’ (Mathematics Syllabus, Class Seven, p. 58).
  • School newsletter ‘They will use a variety of traditional media to produce a mock up. They will use suitable computer software to assist in the production’ (Technology Syllabus, Class Seven, p. 14).
  • ‘Gather, select, record, interpret, and present coherent, structured information from a variety of sources, using different technology, and describing the process used’ (English Syllabus, Class Seven, p. 9).
  • National Geographic’s online atlas: ‘Find nearly any place on Earth, and view it by population, climate, and much more. Plus, browse antique maps; find country facts’ (Mathematics Syllabus, Class Seven, p. 48).
  • ‘The students hone research, and factual reading skills within the context of how the European concept of the world changed between 1420 - 1620. Detailed guidance into library skills will be given and different presentation styles for the material will be encouraged’ (Social Studies Syllabus, Class Seven, p. 28).
  • Food pyramid: ‘Students collect and record data. They use ratios and percents for comparison and create histograms, line graphs, and pie charts using a spreadsheet’ (Mathematics Syllabus, Class Seven, p. 56).
  • ‘Select appropriate reading strategies e.g. skim text for specific information; record key points and organize them in a sequence. Plan a research project and carry out the research’ (English Syllabus, Class Seven p. 12).
  • ‘Select, assemble, and interpret information, using appropriate technology e.g. Use periodicals and periodical files at the school and local libraries, encyclopaedic information, posters from vertical files, and CD Rom sourced information in order to support research’ (English Syllabus, Class Seven, p. 15).
  • ‘To support student research into some aspect of the Renaissance, the students are introduced to the Dewey system, use of contents verses index, and how to use a CD Rom for information. They are given topics which necessitate use of their local library’ (English Syllabus, Class Seven, p. 31).

 

REFERENCES

Bruce, C. (2003). Seven faces of information literacy: Towards inviting students into new experiences. Retrieved February 9, 2008 from http://crm.hct.ac.ae/events/archive/2003/speakers/bruce.pdf

Childs, G. (1991). Steiner education in theory and practice. Edinburgh, Scotland: Floris.

Ministry of Education. The Essential Skills.  New Zealand Curriculum Framework. Retrieved February 14, 2008, from    http://www.tki.org.nz/r/governance/nzcf/ess_skills_e.php#number

Ministry of Education and National Library of New Zealand. (2002). The school library and learning in the information landscape: Guidelines for New Zealand schools. Wellington, New Zealand: Learning Media.

McCauley, D. (2007). DANCE: Dancing with information, information literacy model. Tauranga, New Zealand: Author.

Mortimer, M. (2001). Library speak. (4th ed.). Australia: DocMatrix.

Slyfield, H. (2001). Information literacy in New Zealand secondary and primary Schools.  Wellington, New Zealand: National Library.

 

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